Life on our planet is characterized by an incredible variety of all kinds of living organisms, sometimes having an incredibly complex structure. All this diversity of life: from the simplest insects and plants to us, people (the most «complex organisms») consist of cells, these small bricks of living matter. If a human is the crown of biological evolution, then it will be very interesting to investigate its beginning: the simplest unicellular organisms which at the dawn of history became the founders of all life. The paramecium caudatum (along with amoeba) is one of the most famous simple unicellular creatures. What are the characteristics of the paramecium? What do paramecia eat? How do paramecia reproduce? Read on about all this below.
Amoeba is one of the most famous simple single-celled organisms and is an important object for the study of biologists. Understanding how the simplest unicellular organisms exist and function will help us to learn the very beginning of a long evolutionary path. What is the structure of the amoeba, its habitat? How does the amoeba eat? Read more about this in our article.
The Golgi apparatus, aka the Golgi complex, is one of the most important components in the structure of the cell. This cellular organelle was named after the Italian biologist Camillo Golgi, who discovered it back in 1898. The Golgi apparatus has the appearance of a complex of cavities bounded by single membranes. In fact, the Golgi apparatus is the membrane structure of a eukaryotic cell.
What is chemosynthesis? The process of chemosynthesis is a unique phenomenon in biology. Chemosynthesis is an unusual type of nutrition of bacteria, based on the assimilation of carbon dioxide СО2 due to the oxidation of inorganic compounds. According to scientists, chemosynthesis is the oldest type of autotrophic nutrition (such nutrition, when the body itself synthesizes organic matter from inorganic), which could appear even earlier than photosynthesis.
Chromosomes are nucleoprotein structures of a eukaryotic cell. Most of the genetic information is stored in chromosomes. Due to its ability to reproduce itself, it is the chromosomes that provide the genetic link between generations. Chromosomes are formed from a long DNA molecule, which contains a linear group of many genes, and all genetic information, whether it be about a human, an animal, a plant, or any other living creature.
What is photosynthesis? The process of photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes occurring in Nature. Organic substances are formed from carbon dioxide and water under the action of light; this phenomenon is called photosynthesis. The release of oxygen (vital for the existence of life on our amazing planet) is the most important product of photosynthesis.
It’s no secret that all living beings on our planet are made up of cells, these countless “atoms” of organic matter. The cells, in turn, are surrounded by a special protective membrane, that plays a very important role in the life of the cell. Functions of the cell membrane are not limited only to the protection of the cell, but constitute the most complex mechanism involved in the reproduction, nutrition, and regeneration of the cell.
Vacuoles are one-membrane cellular organelles and important components of a eukaryotic cell (the eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and a membrane – outer shell). However, not all eukaryotic cells have vacuoles among their organelles. Vacuoles are mainly found in plant and fungal cells. Do animal cells have vacuoles? Yes, animal cells do have vacuoles, but they are smaller, larger in number (plant cells usually have just one or a few large vacuoles) and serve a somewhat different purpose than those of plants.
There are many interesting and confusing topics in the multifaceted science of biology. One of them is the ways of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. At first look, there is a similarity between mitosis and meiosis – cell division occurs there and there, but at the same time there are significant differences between them. So, how is meiosis different from mitosis? In order to answer this question, first of all, let’s find out: what is mitosis and what is meiosis.
What is cytoplasm? Cytoplasm is one of the main parts of the eukaryotic cell. Cytoplasm plays a very important role in the life of a cell; it unites all cellular structures, facilitates their interaction with each other. Besides this, the nucleus of the cell and all organelles are located in the cytoplasm. In other words, cytoplasm is the area of space outside the nucleus that consists of all cell organelles.