The Avogadro law was formulated by the Italian chemist Amadeo Avogadro in 1811. It had great importance for the development of the chemistry of that time. However, Avogadro’s law has not lost its relevance and significance even today. Let’s try to define Avogadro law; it will sound something like this.
Oxygen plays a leading role among all the known chemical elements. Life on our planet wouldn’t arise without oxygen. Oxygen is the most common chemical element on Earth, accounting for 49% of the total mass of the earth’s crust. Oxygen is also part of the Earth’s atmosphere; part of the composition of water, and the composition of more than 1,400 different minerals, such as basalt, marble, silicate, silica, etc. About 50-80% of the total mass of tissues, both animals and plants, consists of oxygen. The important role of oxygen for the breathing of all life is well known.
Chemical bonding, its types, properties, along with chemical reactions is one of the cornerstones of an interesting science called chemistry. In this article, we will describe all aspects of chemical bonds, their importance in science and much more.
Chemical reactions (their properties, types, flow conditions, etc.), are the cornerstones of an interesting science called chemistry. Let’s find out what a chemical reaction is and what happens in a chemical reaction. So, the chemical reaction in chemistry is considered to be the conversion of one or several substances into other substances. At the same time, the nuclei of atoms do not change (unlike nuclear reactions). During chemical reactions there is a redistribution of electrons and nuclei, new chemical elements appear.
A covalent bond meaning comes from two Latin words: “co” – jointly and “vales” – valid. Since a covalent bond occurs when a pair of electrons belonging for two atoms simultaneously. The formation of a covalent bond occurs only among the atoms of non-metals, and it can appear both in atoms of molecules and in crystals.
All material substances exist in three basic states: liquid, solid, and gaseous. Yet, there is a state of plasma, which scientists consider to be the fourth state of matter, but our article is not about plasma. Do you know what table salt and a beautiful diamond have in common? Based on their structure, they are both solid objects. The solid objects (whether diamond or salt) have a special crystalline structure; they contain tiny interlocking crystals. This crystalline structure has a certain order, creating a crystal lattice. The crystal lattice is the arrangement of atoms in a crystal.