Friction Force in Physics: Definition, Formulas

Friction Force

The friction force arises from the contact of the surfaces of two physical bodies. The theory of friction worried the minds of mankind, since the earliest times. Ancient engineers: builders of the Egyptian pyramids, Stonehenge in England or mysterious stone idols on Easter Island, all of them (as well as their modern colleagues) were dealing with the problem of friction and how to minimize it. It is difficult to move heavy loads due to the friction force. Our distant ancestors invented such a useful invention as the wheel and many other important discoveries to solve this problem. In our article, we will look at the friction force in the physical aspect.

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Enthalpy of Fusion

Fusion

Fusion is the process of transforming a body from a solid to a liquid state under the influence of temperature. A classic example of fusion from life is the melting of ice, its transformation into the water, or the transformation of a solid piece of tin into a liquid solder under the action of a soldering iron. The transfer to a body of a certain amount of heat can change its state of aggregation; this amazing property of solids to turn into liquids under the influence of temperature is of great importance for science and technology. Scientists (as well as technicians, engineers) need to know at what temperatures certain metals melt (and sometimes not only metals), and for this, such a concept as “enthalpy of fusion” has entered into physics.

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Moment of Inertia

Inertia

Inertia in physics is the ability of bodies to maintain a state of motion for a certain time in the absence of external forces. However, the concept of inertia is often used not only in physics but also in our daily lives. For instance, the inert person is the person who does not show any initiative at all. Inert persons only do what others tell them, and they do it extremely slowly, without any enthusiasm. “It moves by inertia,” we say when we want to emphasize that something is being done without any meaning, but simply because of a habit acquired over the years. Thanks to such everyday examples the concept of inertia is clear, but the term “moment of inertia” requires a more detailed explanation.

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Brownian Motion

Brownian Motion

Brownian motion (or Brownian movement) is the chaotic and random motion of small particles (usually molecules) in different liquids or gases. The cause of Brownian motion is the collision of small particles with other particles. What is the story of the discovery of Brownian motion? Why is Brownian motion so important in physic and chemistry? What are some examples of Brownian motion in real life? Read about all this in our article.

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Oxygen

Oxygen

Oxygen plays a leading role among all the known chemical elements. Life on our planet wouldn’t arise without oxygen. Oxygen is the most common chemical element on Earth, accounting for 49% of the total mass of the earth’s crust. Oxygen is also part of the Earth’s atmosphere; part of the composition of water, and the composition of more than 1,400 different minerals, such as basalt, marble, silicate, silica, etc. About 50-80% of the total mass of tissues, both animals and plants, consists of oxygen. The important role of oxygen for the breathing of all life is well known.

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Diffusion

Diffusion

The word “diffusion” of Latin origin – “diffusio” in Latin means “spread, dispersion.” In science, diffusion is the process of the interpenetration of microparticles upon the contact of different materials. The academic definition of diffusion is: “Diffusion is the mutual penetration of the molecules of one substance into the intermolecular spaces of another substance due to their chaotic motion and collision with each other.”

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Evaporation: Definitions, Causes and Examples

Evaporation

Evaporation is the phase transition of any liquid into a vapor or gaseous state. The evaporation of water is the simplest example that each person encounters while making a tea, for instance. The vapor coming from the tea is the water that has passed from a liquid state into a vaporous one. Evaporation is widely used in industry and everyday life.

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Galilean Relativity

Galileo Galilei

The great scientist of the Renaissance, the inventor of the first telescope, Galileo Galilei made many scientific discoveries in his life, both in astronomy and physics, mathematics, and other sciences. The classical principle of Galilean relativity is among them. It is the cornerstones of modern physics

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Higgs Boson: the God Particle or Fake?

Higgs Boson

The elementary particle Higgs boson was named after the British physicist Peter Higgs, who theoretically predicted its existence back in 1964. Higgs Boson is one of the most mysterious and amazing elementary particles in modern physics. Higgs Boson caused a lot of debate in the scientific community. Someone even says that Higgs Boson is “the God Particle.” On the other hand, there are skeptics who claim that the Higgs boson does not exist and this is all a big fake. What is boson particle, how it was discovered and many more interesting facts are found in this article.

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Universal Law of Gravitation

Newton's apple

It is not a secret for anyone that the law of universal gravitation was discovered by the great English scientist Isaac Newton. According to legend, he was walking in the garden. At that moment, an apple fell from the tree (in one version it fell directly on the head of a physicist, in another it simply fell). Later this apple became famous Newton’s apple. An apple that fell on Newton’s head inspired the discovery of the law of universal gravitation because the Moon in the night sky was not falling, but the apple fell. The scientist probably thought that some force acts on the Moon (causing it to rotate in orbit), and some force acts on the apple, causing it to fall to the ground.

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